THE DEFINING FLAVOR OF JAPANESE CUISINE
Shoyu, or soy sauce, is one of the vyorld's oldest seasonings. A fermented and agled product, generally made of soybeans, grains, and salt, its name is a bit of an anomaly, as the cliaracters used to write shoyu actually mean fermented food oil- no mention of soy beans! Shoyu has always been deeply embraced by the Japanese people as a seasoning used to enhance the speciﬁc ﬂavor of Japan's seasonal foods, and it is impossible to think of the cuisine separately from shoyu! In fact, there is the opinion that its applicability and versatility is the reason that the use of spices and herbs never really developed in Japan. The appeal of shoyu is simple - it magniﬁcently brings out the ﬂavor of any food without overpowering the natural ﬂavor regardless of how the food is prepared. Nowadays, the use of shoyu has spread worldwide, lending depth and vividness to the global food culture. Let's focus in on this all-purpose beloved condiment.
HISTORY OF SHOYU
It's said that in T260, about midway through the Kamakura period (1185-1333), a Buddhist monk from a temple situated in today's Wakayama prefecture made what would become the predecessor of shoyu. This monk, who had resided in China for a while, taught some of the Wakayama locals the process of making a type of miso with soybeans, vegetables, and salt. During the fermentation process, he noticed that some liquid had accumulated at the bottom ofthe barrel holding the miso that bore a resemblance to the tamarishoyu of today. Upon sampling it and ﬁnding it palatable, he decided to use it as a seasoning, and, according to legend, thus evolved the origin of shoyu! In 1530, at the end of the Muromachi period, this liquid was being produced as a seasoning in its own right, and mention of it appears in text for the ﬁrst time in 1536. Because the salt used in its production was still quite an expensive commodity, this early shoyu was reserved only for the aristocracy, monks, and the warrior class.
BIRTH OF KOIKUCHI SHOYU
About 1600, increased production of what is known today as tamari shoyu took hold as popularity grew among the general populace. During the approximate one hundred year period from the latter half of the l6th century to the latter half of the 17th century, handcrafted shoyu production developed in the areas we know as Kyoto, Wakayama, Hyogo, and Chiba prefectures. In the early years of production, usukuchi shoyu, or "light" shoyu, referring to its color, made in the western or Kansai area (including Kyoto, Wakayama and Hyogo) was considered the shoyu of choice. Around i700, Edo (Tokyo's former name) was undergoing major urbanization, and as the number of laborers greatly increased and the "dining-out" culture blossomed, the shoyu produced in the area in and around Chiba prefecture (Kanto, or eastern area) began to exert its inﬂuence and gain popularity. Using locally harvested high quality soybeans and increasing the amount of wheat, a new shoyu recipe with an aromatic, rich ﬂavor was created-the koikuchi, or "dark" shoyu. Koikuchi, which perfectly complemented and enhanced sushi, as well as other Edo-style seafood cuisine, created a combina- tion that proved to be a favorite with the locals. The koikuchi so highly favored by the folks born and bred in Edo continued to be developed and reﬁned, and with it the model for today's Japanese cuisine took root. It's no exaggeration to say that some of the most well-known repre- sentative members ofthe Japanese diet, including sushi, tempura, sukiyciki, shabu-shabu, uhagi no kabayaki, and soba, could never have been created without the existence of koikuchishoyu. The Kanto version ofshoyu became the standard shoyu, and its use spread far and wide throughout the country.
TYPE OF SHOYU
Considered the standard shoyu, koikuchi sales enjoy 83% ofthe shoyu market in Japan. It is usually made with equal amounts of soybeans and wheat, which are fermented, then aged. With its full-bodied taste, pleasant fragrance and beautiful translucent reddish-brown sheen, it is perfectly suited for use as a table-top condiment and just as well-suited for use in dipping sauces, grilling and stewing. This is the shoyu that Kanto folk and those from the northern parts of Japan favor.
This shoyu is lighter in color and fragrance than koikuchi, but don't let that fool you into thinking it is low-salt; it is actually saltier! Developed in the Kansai region, the ingredients and production method are mostly the same as for koikuchi, but in order to develop the lighter color, more salt is used, and the fermentation and aging processes are conducted at a lower temperature. l\lot used as a table-top condiment because of its weak fragrance and saltiness, it is indispensable in traditional Kyoto cuisine and other dishes that showcase the original colors and aromas ofthe ingredients.
Tamari is a thick type of shoyu made from mostly soybeans with usually just a little wheat. The tamari-like substance mentioned earlier was the prototype for shoyu. The tamari that we know today is darker and more aromatic than koikuchi, and it is an excellent choice as a dipping sauce for sashimi and sushi, and can also be used as a table-top condiment. When heated, it develops a lovely deep reddish hue and creates a beautiful glaze seen in teriyaki, tsukudani, senbei, etc.
Gen'en (reduced sodium) shoyu, was developed for people concerned with their sodium intake. It is made by reducing the sodium content of koikuchi via a special process that leaves all the other ﬂavor agents, such as umami and aroma, intact. The amount of sodium is about halfthe amount in regular koikuchi. Shoyu, slowly and carefully crafted with stringently selected ingredients, including water of the ﬁnest quality, has no peer as an all-purpose condiment born of Japan's natural landscape and culture. Even countries that didn't originally use shoyu have adopted it and found that it brings a new level of ﬂavor and excitement to their dishes. It is now one of the fundamental condiments in kitchens all over the world, adding zest to stews and soups, sauces and chutneys, sloppy Joes-and even desserts! So make some space in your spice cabinet for a bottle (or two) or one of the glories of Japanese dietary culture-shoyu!